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WHO Classification of Tumours
Gastrinoma, malignant


Most neuroendocrine neoplasms of the stomach are neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) – well-differentiated, nonfunctioning enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell carcinoids (ECL cell NETs) that mainly produce histamine and histidine decarboxylase. However, minor cell subpopulations expressing serotonin, ghrelin, gastrin, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), or α-human chorionic gonadotrophin (α-hCG) have been detected
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Papotti M, Cassoni P, Volante M, Deghenghi R, Muccioli G, Ghigo E (2001)
Ghrelin-producing endocrine tumors of the stomach and intestine.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 5052-9

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Rindi G, Luinetti O, Cornaggia M, Capella C, Solcia E (1993)
Three subtypes of gastric argyrophil carcinoid and the gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study.
Gastroenterology 104: 994-1006

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Rindi G, Savio A, Torsello A, Zoli M, Locatelli V, Cocchi D, Paolotti D, Solcia E (2002)
Ghrelin expression in gut endocrine growths.
Histochem Cell Biol 117: 521-5


Gastrin producing NET (gastrinoma)of the stomach is rare. NETs that produce gastrin may present in association with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) due to overproduction of gastrin and may thus be defined as gastrinoma (more frequently occurring in the duodenum). It should be noted that immunohistochemical demonstration of gastrin in the absence of a syndromic condition does not merit use of the term gastrinoma. Well-differentiated gastrin-producing NETs are small, mucosal-submucosal nodules, found incidentally at endoscopy or in a gastrectomy specimen, more frequently in proximity of the pylorus, either on its gastric or, especially, its duodenal slope. They may show a characteristic thin, trabecular– gyriform pattern or a solid nest pattern. The cells are uniform with scanty cytoplasm and show predominant immunoreactivity for gastrin

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Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND (Eds.)
WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System.
4th Edition
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2010


Commentary: Neuroendocrine tumours of the digestive system