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WHO Classification of Tumours
Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma
Connective, subcutaneous and other soft tissues


Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytomas (inflammatory MFHs) are undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas with a prominent histiocytic and inflammatory infiltrate. The most commonly affected site is the retroperitoneum, followed by intra-abdominal and deep soft tissue locations. Inflammatory MFHs are typically large tumours and often yellow in colour due to aggregations of xanthoma cells. Histologically, the tumour is composed of sheets of benign xanthoma cells, numerous inflammatory cells, and scattered atypical large cells with irregular, hyperchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli.
Inflammatory MFH is the rarest type of MFH. Most patients are >40 years old. The prognosis is poor. Approximately 25% of patients develop distant metastases; in two thirds of cases, persistent or recurrent disease results in death

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Hollowood K, Fletcher CD (1995)
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: morphologic pattern or pathologic entity?
Semin Diagn Pathol 12: 210-20

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Kyriakos M, Kempson RL (1976)
Inflammatory fibrous histiocytoma. An aggressive and lethal lesion.
Cancer 37: 1584-1606

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Fletcher CDM, Unni KK, Mertens F (Eds.)
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone.
3rd Edition
IARC Press: Lyon 2002