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WHO Classification of Tumours
Myeloid leukaemia associated with Down syndrome
Tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues


Definition

Individuals with DS have a 50 fold increase in incidence of acute leukaemia during the first 5 years of life compared to non-DS individuals. Acute myeloid leukaemia in DS is usually an acute mega­karyoblastic leukaemia, accounting for 50% of cases of acute leukaemia in DS individuals beyond the neonatal period. There are no biological differences in DS individuals between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and overt AML; therefore, a comparable diagnostic differentiation algorithm is not relevant and would have no prognostic or therapeutic consequences. Since this type of disease is unique to children with DS the term myeloid leukaemia of DS encompasses both MDS and AML.

> Related Topics
Overview: Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome
Refractory cytopenia of childhood
Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia
Introduction: Myeloid Neoplasms