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WHO Classification of Tumours
Adrenal cortical carcinoma
Adrenal gland


Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare, often large and malignant epithelial tumor arising from adrenal cortical cells
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Ronald A. DeLellis, Ricardo V. Lloyd, Philipp U. Heitz, Charis Eng
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Endocrine Organs
IARC Press: Lyon 2004


Symptoms are usually related to the excessive production of hormones, and include Cushing syndrome and virilism in women. Common sites of metastasis include liver, lung, bone, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
The five-year survival rate is about 68% and has been improving over time. This is possibly due to a detection of smaller lesions by advanced radiological techniques. The most important pathologic prognostic factors include mitotic rate, tumour size and the Ki-67 index

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Harrison LE, Gaudin PB, Brennan MF (1999)
Pathologic features of prognostic significance for adrenocortical carcinoma after curative resection.
Arch Surg 134: 181-5

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Weiss LM, Medeiros LJ, Vickery AL (1989)
Pathologic features of prognostic significance in adrenocortical carcinoma.
Am J Surg Pathol 13: 202-6