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WHO Classification of Tumours
Basal cell carcinoma, NOS
Skin


Definition

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. It arises from basal cells of the epidermis and pilosebaceous units and is histologically characterized by lobules, columns, bands or cords of basaloid "germinative" cells, surrounded by an outer palisade of cells. The associated stroma is loose and fibromucinous
Click for details
LeBoit PE, Burg G, Weedon D, Sarasin A (Eds.)
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumours
3rd Edition
IARC Press: Lyon 2005



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BCCs develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. About 85% are found on the head and neck, the remaining 15% on the trunk and extremities. Less frequent sites of involvement are penis and vulva.
The tumour usually grows in a slow and indolent fashion. However, if untreated, it may invade subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle and bone. Clinically, BCC is divided into the following types: nodular, ulcerative, superficial, multicentric, erythematous, and sclerosing or morphea-like.
More than 95% of basal cell carcinomas occur in patients over 40, predominantly in fair-skinned individuals who are prone to sunburn. Treatment options include surgical excision, irradiation and topical application of imiquimod

Click to access Pubmed
A Gaspari A, Tyring SK, Rosen T (2009)
Beyond a decade of 5% imiquimod topical therapy.
J Drugs Dermatol 8: 467-74




Click to access Pubmed
Mosterd K, Arits AH, Thissen MR, Kelleners-Smeets NW (2009)
Histology-based treatment of basal cell carcinoma.
Acta Derm Venereol 89: 454-8



. Inhibitors of the hedgehog pathway are currently being tested
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Von Hoff DD, Lorusso PM, Rudin CM, Reddy JC, Yauch RL, Tibes R, Weiss GJ, Borad MJ, Hann CL, Brahmer JR, Mackey HM, Lum BL, Darbonne WC, Marsters JC, de Sauvage FJ, Low JA (2009)
Inhibition of the Hedgehog Pathway in Advanced Basal-Cell Carcinoma.
N Engl J Med 361:1164-72



. Distant metastases are rare
Click for details
LeBoit PE, Burg G, Weedon D, Sarasin A (Eds.)
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumours
3rd Edition
IARC Press: Lyon 2005



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