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WHO Classification of Tumours
Refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts
Tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues


Refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) characterized by anaemia, morpho­logic dysplasia in the erythroid lineage and ring sideroblasts comprising ≥15% of the bone marrow (BM) erythroid precursors. There is no significant dysplasia in non-erythroid lineages. Myeloblasts comprise <5% of the nucleated BM cells and are not present in the peripheral blood (PB). Secondary causes of ring sidero­blasts must be excluded.

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Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis
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