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WHO Classification of Tumours
Plasma cell myeloma


Plasma cell myeloma is a bone marrow (BM)-based, multifocal plasma cell neoplasm associated with an M-protein in serum and/or urine
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Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Vardiman JW (Eds.)
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues
4th Edition
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2008

. The disease ranges clinically from asymptomatic to aggressive forms due to deposition of abnormal immunoglobulin chains in tissues, including non-secretory myeloma, smoldering myeloma, indolent myeloma, and plasma cell leukaemia. Clinical signs and symptoms include skeletal destruction with osteolytic lesions, pathological fractures, bone pain, hypercalcemia, and anemia
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Malpas J, Bergsagel D, Kyle R, Anderson K (Eds.)
Myeloma: Biology and Management
3rd Edition
Saumders: Philadelphia 2004