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WHO Classification of Tumours
Insulin producing carcinoma (insulinoma)
Pancreas


Definition

An insulinoma is a functionally active and commonly benign endocrine tumour of the pancreas with evidence of B-cell differentiation and clinical symptoms of hypoglycaemia due to inappropriate secretion of insulin
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Ronald A. DeLellis, Ricardo V. Lloyd, Philipp U. Heitz, Charis Eng
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Endocrine Organs
IARC Press: Lyon 2004



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Insulinomas are the most frequent of all functioning pancreatic endocrine tumours

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Kovacs K, Asa SL
Functional Endocrine Pathology
2nd.
Blackwell Science Inc.: Oxford, Boston 1998




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Damjanov I, Linder J
Andersonís Pathology
10th
Mosby-Year Book Inc.: St. Louis 1996



. They have been diagnosed in all age groups, but rarely occur below the age of 15. The highest incidence is found between 40-60 years.
The etiology and pathogenesis of insulinomas are unknown. No risk factors have been associated with these tumours.
Malignant insulinomas may show gross local invasion of peripancreatic fatty tissue and/or adjacent organs such as the duodenum or the spleen. The first metastases are usually found in regional lymph nodes (peripancreatic, coeliac, periaortic) and the liver.

Commentary: Neuroendocrine tumours of the digestive system