Insulin producing carcinoma (insulinoma)
An insulinoma is a functionally active and commonly benign endocrine tumour of the pancreas with evidence of B-cell differentiation and clinical symptoms of hypoglycaemia due to inappropriate secretion of insulin
Ronald A. DeLellis, Ricardo V. Lloyd, Philipp U. Heitz, Charis Eng
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Endocrine Organs
IARC Press: Lyon 2004
Insulinomas are the most frequent of all functioning pancreatic endocrine tumours
Kovacs K, Asa SL
Functional Endocrine Pathology
Blackwell Science Inc.: Oxford, Boston 1998
Damjanov I, Linder J
. They have been diagnosed in all age groups, but rarely occur below the age of 15. The highest incidence is found between 40-60 years.
Mosby-Year Book Inc.: St. Louis 1996
The etiology and pathogenesis of insulinomas are unknown. No risk factors have been associated with these tumours.
Malignant insulinomas may show gross local invasion of peripancreatic fatty tissue and/or adjacent organs such as the duodenum or the spleen. The first metastases are usually found in regional lymph nodes (peripancreatic, coeliac, periaortic) and the liver.
Commentary: Neuroendocrine tumours of the digestive system