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WHO Classification of Tumours
Clear cell adenocarcinoma, NOS
Gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract


A malignant neoplasm composed of glandular epithelial clear cells. Various architectural patterns may be seen, including papillary, tubulocystic, and solid.

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder
This rare malignant neoplasm is composed predominantly of glycogen-rich clear cells with well-defined cytoplasmic borders and central hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in glandular or other growth patterns

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Albores-Saavedra J, Molberg K, Henson DE (1996)
Unusual malignant epithelial tumors of the gallbladder.
Semin Diagn Pathol 13: 326-38

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Bittinger A, Altekrüger I, Barth P (1995)
Clear cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. A histological and immunohistochemical study.
Pathol Res Pract 191: 1259-65; discussion 1266

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Suzuki M, Takahashi T, Ouchi K, Matsuno S (1989)
The development and extension of hepatohilar bile duct carcinoma. A three-dimensional tumor mapping in the intrahepatic biliary tree visualized with the aid of a graphics computer system.
Cancer 64: 658-66

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Vardaman C, Albores-Saavedra J (1995)
Clear cell carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.
Am J Surg Pathol 19: 91-9

. Some cells contain eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. Foci of conventional adenocarcinoma with mucin production are usually found and can distinguish primary carcinomas from metastatic clear cell carcinomas of the kidney. Exclusion of renal cell carcinoma is also accomplished by immunohistochemical labelling for PAX8 and RCC
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Avery AK, Beckstead J, Renshaw AA, Corless CL (2000)
Use of antibodies to RCC and CD10 in the differential diagnosis of renal neoplasms.
Am J Surg Pathol 24: 203-10

. In some clear cell adenocarcinomas, the columnar cells contain subnuclear and supranuclear vacuoles similar to those seen in secretory endometrium. Production of α-fetoprotein has been documented in clear cell carcinomas with or without hepatoid differentiation
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Miyazawa M, Torii T, Toshimitsu Y, Kamizasa N, Suzuki T, Shinozuka N, Ishizawa K, Koyama I (2006)
Alpha-fetoprotein-producing clear cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
J Clin Gastroenterol 40: 555-7

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Watanabe M, Asaka M, Tanaka J, Kurosawa M, Kasai M, Miyazaki T (1994)
Point mutation of K-ras gene codon 12 in biliary tract tumors.
Gastroenterology 107: 1147-53