Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts
A rare aggressive malignant mesenchymal neoplasm arising from skeletal muscle. It usually occurs in children and young adults. Only a small percentage of tumors arise in the skeletal muscle of the extremities. The majority arise in other anatomical sites.
Hepatobiliary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)
RMS is a clinically and pathologically distinct tumour entity characterized by the development and growth of a usually embryonal- type rhabdomyosarcoma along the biliary tract in children
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Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) of the biliary tree. Report of five cases and a review of the literature.
Cancer 24: 333-42
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. Although rare, this neoplasm is the most common tumour of the biliary tract in children, representing 1% of all paediatric rhabdomyosarcomas. The tumour occurs predominantly in infants, with a marked male preponderance, and about 2% of lesions are present at birth.
Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tract.
Am J Surg Pathol 5: 643-52
Clinical presentation is dominated by the sequelae of the tumour’s intrabiliary growth, i.e. mainly intermittent obstructive jaundice, but fever and nonspecific abdominal manifestations may also occur. Grossly, RMS forms soft and often transparent masses that grow into the biliary lumina, producing polypoid and grape-like masses (botryoid growth pattern). Definitive diagnosis requires immunohistochemistry, the neoplastic cells being immunoreactive for desmin, myogenin and MyoD.
For treatment, chemotherapy with or without surgery has been performed, leading to complete tumour regression in some patients and avoiding aggressive surgery, but treatment strategies and results are constantly changing owing to improved imaging procedures for staging and novel therapy regimes
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Rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree.
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Aggressive surgery is unwarranted for biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma.
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International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2010