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WHO Classification of Tumours
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), NOS
Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts


Definition

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour with hepatocellular differentiation. HCC is fairly common in Asia and Africa, but also moderately common in some European countries (Italy, France). Geographical variations in HCC incidence and mortality are ascribed to different levels of exposure to HCC-associated risk factors: chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and exposure to aflatoxin in developing countries, smoking and alcohol abuse in developed countries
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Okuda K, Tabor E
Liver Cancer
Churchill Livingstone: New York 1997




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Okuda K, Tabor E
Liver Cancer
Churchill Livingstone: New York 1997




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Peers F, Bosch X, Kaldor J, Linsell A, Pluijmen M (1987)
Aflatoxin exposure, hepatitis B virus infection and liver cancer in Swaziland.
Int J Cancer 39: 545-53




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Qiao ZK, Halliday ML, Rankin JG, Coates RA (1988)
Relationship between hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence, per capita alcohol consumption and primary liver cancer death rate in 30 countries.
J Clin Epidemiol 41: 787-92



. In Japan, local differences in the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, standardized to world population) reflect the sero-prevalence of antibodies to HCV among blood donors
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Age-adjusted death rates by prefecture, Special Report on Vital Statistics.
Statistics and Information Department, Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Health and Welfare Statistics Association.: 1998




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Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Raymond L, and Young J
Cancer Incidence in Five Continents
IARC: Lyon 1997




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Tanaka H, Hiyama T, Okubo Y, Kitada A, Fujimoto I (1994)
Primary liver cancer incidence-rates related to hepatitis-C virus infection: a correlational study in Osaka, Japan.
Cancer Causes Control 5: 61-5




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Hayashi N, Kiyosawa K
Hepatitis Type C
Igaku-Shoin: Tokyo 1996



. Different histological and cytological subtypes of HCCs are described including fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma . Precursor and early lesions of HCC are also internationally recognized. The prognosis for patients with classical HCC is generally very poor. Most studies report a 5-year survival rate of < 5% in patients with symptomatic HCC. Currently, long-term survival is likely only in patients with small, asymptomatic HCCs that can be treated by resection, including liver transplantation, or by nonsurgical methods, including percutaneous ethanol or acetic acid injection and percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation
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Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND (Eds.)
WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System.
4th Edition
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2010



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