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WHO Classification of Tumours
Squamous cell carcinoma, NOS
Anus and anal canal


Definition

A carcinoma arising from squamous epithelial cells, morphologically characterized by the proliferation of atypical, often pleomorphic
Click for details
Madeleine MM, Newcomer LM (2007). Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner JM, eds.
Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. SEER Program: Bethesda, MD, pp. 43-48.
National Cancer Institute
2007



cells. Squamous cell carcinomas are graded as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Well differentiated carcinomas are usually associated with keratin production and the presence of intercellular bridges between adjacent cells. Typical sites of squamous cell carcinomas include the head and neck region, repiratory tract, skin and cervix.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal
It is a malignant epithelial neoplasm that is frequently associated with chronic infection with human papillovirus (HPV). Other risk factors include HIV infection, other causes of immunosuppresion and sexual pratices; other risk factors reported include smoking, haemorrhoids, fissures, fistulae and abscesses in the anal region, and potentially longstanding Crohn disease. Most anal cancers occur among patients in the sixth or seventh decade of life

Click to access Pubmed
Frisch M, Melbye M, Møller H (1993)
Trends in incidence of anal cancer in Denmark.
BMJ 306: 419-22



. However, in individuals with cellular immune incompetence, anal cancer may occur at a young age
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Melbye M, Coté TR, Kessler L, Gail M, Biggar RJ (1994)
High incidence of anal cancer among AIDS patients. The AIDS/Cancer Working Group.
Lancet 343: 636-9



. The incidence is higher in females than in males
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Cook MB, Dawsey SM, Freedman ND, Inskip PD, Wichner SM, Quraishi SM, Devesa SS, McGlynn KA (2009)
Sex disparities in cancer incidence by period and age.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18: 1174-82




Click to access Pubmed
Frisch M, Melbye M, Møller H (1993)
Trends in incidence of anal cancer in Denmark.
BMJ 306: 419-22




Click to access Pubmed
Melbye M, Rabkin C, Frisch M, Biggar RJ (1994)
Changing patterns of anal cancer incidence in the United States, 1940-1989.
Am J Epidemiol 139: 772-80



, and urban than in rural areas
Click to access Pubmed
Frisch M, Melbye M, Møller H (1993)
Trends in incidence of anal cancer in Denmark.
BMJ 306: 419-22




Click to access Pubmed
Melbye M, Rabkin C, Frisch M, Biggar RJ (1994)
Changing patterns of anal cancer incidence in the United States, 1940-1989.
Am J Epidemiol 139: 772-80



. Racial differences also exist. In the USA, the SEER survival monograph
Click for details
Madeleine MM, Newcomer LM (2007). Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner JM, eds.
Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. SEER Program: Bethesda, MD, pp. 43-48.
National Cancer Institute
2007



reports a relative 5-year survival rate of 60.2 for Caucasian men and 47.0 for African-American men and of 69.5 and 58.5 for Caucasian women and African-American women, respectively
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Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND (Eds.)
WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System.
4th Edition
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2010



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Topographic definition of the anal canal, anal margin and perianal region