Verrucous carcinoma, NOS
A well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma characterized by a papillary growth pattern, acanthosis, mild cytologic atypia, and pushing tumor margins.
In the oesophagus, verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare, distinct, highly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It is usually associated with chronic oesophagitis, achalasia, diverticular disease, or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
Kavin H, Yaremko L, Valaitis J, Chowdhury L (1996)
. Microscopically, it consists of highly differentiated keratinized cells with minimal cytological atypia. The tumour shows a pushing rather than an infiltrating margin
Chronic esophagitis evolving to verrucous squamous cell carcinoma: possible role of exogenous chemical carcinogens.
Gastroenterology 110: 904-14
Osborn NK, Keate RF, Trastek VF, Nguyen CC (2003)
, growing slowly and invading locally. Metastases are uncommon
Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus: clinicopathophysiologic features and treatment of a rare entity.
Dig Dis Sci 48: 465-74
Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND (Eds.)
WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System.
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2010