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WHO Classification of Tumours
Verrucous carcinoma, NOS


A well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma characterized by a papillary growth pattern, acanthosis, mild cytologic atypia, and pushing tumor margins.

In the oesophagus, verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare, distinct, highly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It is usually associated with chronic oesophagitis, achalasia, diverticular disease, or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

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Kavin H, Yaremko L, Valaitis J, Chowdhury L (1996)
Chronic esophagitis evolving to verrucous squamous cell carcinoma: possible role of exogenous chemical carcinogens.
Gastroenterology 110: 904-14

. Microscopically, it consists of highly differentiated keratinized cells with minimal cytological atypia. The tumour shows a pushing rather than an infiltrating margin
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Osborn NK, Keate RF, Trastek VF, Nguyen CC (2003)
Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus: clinicopathophysiologic features and treatment of a rare entity.
Dig Dis Sci 48: 465-74

, growing slowly and invading locally. Metastases are uncommon
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Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND (Eds.)
WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System.
4th Edition
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon 2010